By Mueni wa Muiu, Guy Martin (auth.)

ISBN-10: 0230618316

ISBN-13: 9780230618312

ISBN-10: 1349374563

ISBN-13: 9781349374564

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Indigenous African Political Systems and Institutions 27 State-building in Antiquity: Kush/Nubia (Napata and Meroe) Kush (the Nubian kingdom) refers to the upper Nile Valley south of Egypt, and to the diverse civilizations that occupied all or part of that region from the second millennium BCE to the end of antiquity (the fourth century of our era). It coexisted with Egypt. Its capital, Meroe, was located at the junction of the Nile and Atbara rivers in central Sudan. Meroe was about four hundred miles north of present-day Khartoum.

Carthage did not have a standing army. Instead, generals were appointed in an ad hoc fashion, as the need arose. Carthage was plagued by recurrent, rural-based popular rebellions. For example, Libyans revolted and introduced their own coins—“Libyon” (meaning “Libyan” in Greek). As central power weakened, client states were left to their own devices. These states regained their autonomy, resulting in the progressive decline of Carthage. The cultural influence of Carthage persisted even after Roman conquest.

From Libya it obtained gold, silver, and tin iron, from which it made weapons. It also traded with Morocco. One of its rulers, Hano, was responsible for building settlements along the Moroccan coast. The constitution of Carthage was one of the most elaborate in antiquity. Political leadership was based on heredity. Kings assumed sacral, judicial, political, and military powers. Certain families were prominent in its political life. For example, the Magnid family ruled between the fifth and sixth century BCE.

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A New Paradigm of the African State: Fundi wa Afrika by Mueni wa Muiu, Guy Martin (auth.)

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